Tag: tomcat



I had a quick thought this morning: I’m always logging in to servers to nose around in their logs. So why not a quick webapp to view the logs? I’ve done this before, but not in Java. So, I wrote tclogview in between stuffing down goose and entertaining the sprog.

To use it, check it out and run mvn package. Then copy target/tclogview.war into a ${catalina.base}/webapps. You’ll also need to set up a user with the tclogview role. That means adding these two lines to ${catalina.base}/conf/tomcat-users.xml.

  <role rolename="tclogview"/>
  <user username="chip" password="lumberjack" roles="tclogview"/>

There’s a load of improvements that could be made to it. Some Ajax to implement tail -f behaviour (using byte ranges for preference) would be lovely. But it seems useful as is.

P.S. In case you’re not happy with git, here’s a source zip and a prebuilt war file.

Tomcat Logging in WTP

I’ve just been trying to enable debug logging for tomcat (don’t ask). Normally you do this by editing $CATALINA_HOME/conf/logging.properties and restarting.

Except I tried that in Eclipse (using WTP) and it didn’t work.

I tried copying it to the $CATALINA_BASE/conf directory instead1.

Still no joy.

I’ve just found the answer, after looking in the tomcat source. It turns out that tomcat’s alternative logging implementation (JULI) is enabled via a system property. This happens inside catalina.sh:

# Set juli LogManager if it is present
if [ -r "$CATALINA_BASE"/conf/logging.properties ]; then
  JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Djava.util.logging.manager=org.apache.juli.ClassLoaderLogManager"

But Eclipse runs the Java code directly, without using catalina.sh. So the properties never gets set. You have to set them by hand in the “Run Configurations” dialog. Like this:

Setting system properties for tomcat in Eclipse

Of note there is that I’ve imported the logging.properties file into the Servers project of my workspace. It seemed liked a useful place to put it.

Of course, after realising that, I soon find the same information in the WTP FAQ: How do I enable the JULI logging in a Tomcat 5.5 Server instance?.

Anyway, now I might be able to debug that ClassLoader issue…

1 Inside Eclipse with WTP, that will be something like $WORKSPACE/.metadata/.plugins/org.eclipse.wst.server.core/tmp0.

Character Encodings Bite Again

A colleague gave me a nudge today. “This page doesn’t validate because of an encoding error”. It was fairly simple: the string “Jiménez” contained a single byte—Latin1. Ooops. It turned out that we were generating the page as ISO-8859-1 instead of UTF-8 (which is what the page had been declared as in the HTML).

So, which bit of Spring WebMVC sets the character encoding? A bit of poking around in the debugger didn’t pop up any obvious extension point. So we stuck this in our Controller.


This worked, but it’s pretty awful having to do this in every single controller. So, we poked around a bit more and found CharacterEncodingFilter. Installing this into web.xml made things work.


Whilst rummaging around in here, we noticed something interesting: the code is set up like a spring bean—it doesn’t read the init-params directly. There’s some crafty code in GenericFilterBean to get this to work. Check it out.

Anyway, that Filter ensured that we output UTF-8 correctly. The forceEncoding parameter ensured that it was set on the response as well as the request.

Incidentally, we figured out where the default value of ISO-8859-1 gets applied. Inside DispatcherServlet.render(), the LocaleResolver gets called, followed by ServletResponse.setLocale(). Tomcat uses the Locale to set the character encoding if it hasn’t been already. Which frankly is a pretty daft thing to do. Being british does not indicate my preference as to Latin-1 vs UTF-8.

Then, the next problem reared its head. The “Jiménez” text was actually a link to search for “Jiménez” in the author field. The URL itself was correctly encoded as q=Jim%C3%A9nez. But when we clicked on it, it didn’t find the original article.

Our search is implemented in Solr. So we immediately had a look at the Solr logs. That clearly had Unicode problems (which is why it wasn’t finding any results). The two bytes of UTF-8 were being interpreted as individual characters (i.e. something was interpreting the URI as ISO-8859-1). Bugger.

Working backwards, we looked at the access logs for Solr. After a brief diversion to enable the access logs for tomcat inside WTP inside Eclipse (oh, the pain of yak shaving), we found that the sender was passing doubly encoded UTF-8. Arrgh.

So we jumped all the way back to the beginning of the search, back in the Controller.

  String q = request.getParameter("q");

Looking at q in the debugger, that was also wrong. So at that point, the only thing that could have affected it would be tomcat itself. A quick google turned up the URIEncoding parameter of the HTTP connector. Setting that to UTF-8 in server.xml fixed our search problem by making getParameter return the correct string.

I have no idea why tomcat doesn’t just listen to the request.setContentType() that the CharacterEncodingFilter performs, but there you go.

So, the lessons are:

  1. Use CharacterEncodingFilter with Spring WebMVC to get the correct output encoding (and input encoding for POST requests).
  2. Always configure tomcat to use UTF-8 for interpreting URI query strings.
  3. Always include some test data with accents to ensure it goes through your system cleanly.